What is Open Vehicle Routing Problem (OVRP)? [Benefits and Applications]

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What is open vehicle routing problem

What is Open Vehicle Routing Problem (OVRP)?

Open Vehicle Routing Problem (OVRP) is a variant of the standard Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), where a fleet of vehicles is utilized to serve a group of customers with known locations, demands, and time windows.

OVRP is an important problem in the field of operational research. It enables businesses and organizations to maximize the efficiency of their classic vehicle routing problem. By solving the OVRP, an organization can raise operational efficiency, enhance service quality, and lower transportation costs. 

Key Semantic Entities Related to Open Vehicle Routing Problem

Knowing the following semantic entities is essential to understand the Open Vehicle Routing Problem:

  • Vehicle routing problem: Vehicle Routing Problem is a problem that involves finding the most effective way to complete delivery tasks and deliver goods using a fleet of vehicles.
  • Depots: They are the starting and finishing points of the routes for the vehicles.
  • Time windows: The time frames wherein a vehicle must arrive at a customer location are known as time windows.
  • Constraints: Limitations or restrictions that must be met in the problem-solving process are known as constraints.
  • Driver availability: The availability of drivers to operate the vehicle and perform deliveries or pickups is referred to as driver availability.
  • Service time: It is the amount of time needed to service a customer location, including loading and unloading delays.
  • Customer preferences: It refers to the preferences or needs of the customer, such as specified delivery dates or directions for product handling.
  • Time-critical deliveries: The deliveries that must be made within a certain time window, because of their urgency or importance.

Now that we are familiar with the fundamental concepts related to the Open Vehicle Routing Problem, we can now move forward to learn how to solve the OVRP.

How is the Open Vehicle Routing Problem Solved?

The Open Vehicle Routing Problem (OVRP) has been the subject of numerous algorithms that have been developed over time. Below are some of the most popular algorithms for solving OVRP:

1. Exact algorithms

The exact algorithms use mathematical methods to identify the best answers to open vehicle routing problems. Although it offers the finest solutions, large instances may make it computationally expensive. 

2. Heuristic method

Heuristic methods are approximate formulas that find OVRP solutions that are close to optimal by using educated guesses or rules of thumb. These techniques include hybrid heuristics, construction heuristics, and improvement heuristics. 

3. Metaheuristics method

High-level problem-solving techniques called metaheuristics use heuristics to find approximate solutions to the OVRP. Simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization, and tabu search are a few of these techniques. Metaheuristics are useful, but they may need more computational resources and might not always result in the best answer.

Businesses may make educated judgments on fleet management and route optimization by understanding the various algorithms available for solving the OVRP. 

Challenges in Solving the OVRP

OVRP is a complex problem, and it can be challenging to solve because of several restrictions. We will go over some of the challenges encountered when trying to solve the OVRP: 

  • One of the main challenges is the complexity of the problem itself, which makes it difficult to find the exact solution for large instances of the problem. The OVRP falls within the category of NP-hard problems, which means that computing an optimal solution is difficult.
  • The necessity to take into account real-world constraints like vehicle capacities, time frames, traffic regulations, and driver availability is another challenge in addressing the Open Vehicle Routing Problem. These restrictions increase the complexity of the problem.
  • It is difficult to sustain an ideal solution over time because of the dynamic nature of the problem, as OVRP must deal with uncertainties like traffic congestion, unforeseen events, and customer cancellations. This requires algorithms that can swiftly adjust to changes in the problem.

Despite these challenges, several strategies have been developed for solving the OVRP.

Benefits of Using the Open Vehicle Routing Problem

The Open Vehicle Routing Problem provides several benefits to businesses, including:

  • By optimizing the routes, a business can cut down on both the number of vehicles and the overall distance traveled. It can thereby reduce fuel usage and maintenance expenses, resulting in significant cost savings.
  • OVRP can aid in enhancing customer service, by making sure that orders are delivered on time and minimizing delivery mistakes, 
  • By reducing the distance traveled, the carbon footprint of the fleet can be lowered, making the operation more sustainable.
  • A business can cut down on the time and effort required to plan and carry out its operations by optimizing vehicle routing.
  • OVRP algorithms are extremely flexible since they can be customized to accommodate various constraints and requirements.
  • The efficiency of the delivery process can be increased by making real-time optimization in response to variations in traffic, weather, or other circumstances.

This is how making use of the OVRP can lead to greater customer service, cost savings on transportation, and more environmentally friendly transportation methods.

Applications of Open Vehicle Routing Problem 

The Open Vehicle Routing Problem is employed in a variety of industries, such as:

  • Transportation: Logistics companies utilize the OVRP to optimize the route planning of their vehicles, cut expenses, and boost efficiency.
  • Public Transportation: To improve passenger satisfaction and cut down on travel time, the OVRP is used in public transportation.
  • Delivery and logistics: The OVRP is used by businesses like Amazon, FedEx, and UPS to optimize their delivery routes and lower transportation costs. 
  • Waste Collection: Municipalities utilize the OVRP to cut down on the time and resources needed for garbage trucks to collect garbage from homes and businesses while also optimizing the routes they take.
  • Emergency Response: The OVRP helps emergency services like ambulances and fire engines to plan their routes more efficiently and respond to emergencies faster.

The Open Vehicle Routing Problem is being used by several industries ranging from transportation to emergency response for improving operational efficiency and cutting costs. 


To sum up, the Open Vehicle Routing Problem (OVRP) is crucial for companies that provide emergency services, waste management, and logistics. Businesses can reduce the number of vehicles needed for transportation, lower fuel and maintenance costs, and deliver goods and services on time by using effective routing. 

Companies can reduce the number of vehicles required for transportation and optimize vehicle routes by using effective algorithms and approaches. Overall, firms may benefit by solving the OVRP in a number of ways, including cost savings, improved service, and higher operational effectiveness. 

Author Bio
Rakesh Patel
Rakesh Patel

Rakesh Patel, author of two defining books on reverse geotagging, is a trusted authority in routing and logistics. His innovative solutions at Upper Route Planner have simplified logistics for businesses across the board. A thought leader in the field, Rakesh's insights are shaping the future of modern-day logistics, making him your go-to expert for all things route optimization. Read more.